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Physics Coaching in Chandigarh
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The Physics syllabus includes laws, formulas, equations, theories and series of experiments which a student must grab. The subject leads you to the real world of imagination, the planetary motions and the universe which sounds an interesting one, isn’t it?
All the matter and the elements of the universe are bounded with various principles of physics and also obey the laws right from the beginning of the life on the planet. The advancement in the field of science and technology is one of the results of works of physics.
Physics Syllabus:
 Mechanics of Particles: Laws of motion; conservation of energy and momentum, applications to rotating frames, cent r ipetal and Cor iol is accelerat ions; Motion under a central force; Conservation of angular momentum, Kepler’s laws; Fields and potentials; Gravitational field and potential due to spherical bodies, Gauss and Poisson equations, gravitational selfenergy; Twobody problem; Reduced mass; Rutherford scattering; Centre of mass an laboratory reference frames.
 Mechanics of Rigid Bodies: System of particles; Centre of mass, angular momentum, equations of motion; Conservation theorems for energy, momentum and angular momentum; Elastic and inelastic collisions; Rigid body; Degrees of freedom, Euler’s theorem, angular velocity, angular momentum, moments of inertia, theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes, equation of motion for rotation; Molecular rotations (as rigid bodies); Di and triatomic molecules; Precessional motion; top, gyroscope.
 Mechanics of Continuous Media: Elasticity, Hooke’s law and elastic constants of isotropic solids and their interrelation; Streamline (Laminar) flow, viscosity, Poiseuille’s equation, Bernoulli’s equation, Stokes’ law and applications.
 Special Relativity: MichelsonMorley experiment and its implications; Lorentz transformationslength contraction, time dilation, addition of relativistic velocities, aberration and Doppler effect, massenergy relation, simple applications to a decay process; Four dimensional momentum vector; Covariance of equations of physics.
2. Waves and Optics:

 Waves: Simple harmonic motion, damped oscillation, forced oscillation and resonance; Beats; Stationary waves in a string; Pulses and wave packets; Phase and group velocities; Reflection and Refraction from Huygens’ principle.
 Geometrical Optics: Laws of reflection and refraction from Fermat’s principle ; Matrix method in paraxial opticsthin lens formula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses, chromatic and spherical aberrations.
 Interference: Interference of lightYoung’s experiment, Newton’s rings, interference by thin films, Michelson interferometer; Multiple beam interference and FabryPerot interferometer.
 Diffraction: Fraunhofer diffractionsingle slit, double slit, diffraction grating, resolving power; Diffraction by a circular aperture and the Airy pattern; Fresnel diffraction: halfperiod zones and zone plates, circular aperture.
 Polarization and Modern Optics: Production and detection of linearly and circularly polarized light; Double refraction, quarter wave plate; Optical activity; Principles of fibre optics, attenuation; Pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index f ibres; Mater ial dispersion, single mode fibres; LasersEinstein A and B coefficients; Ruby and HeNe lasers; Characteristics of laser lightspatial and temporal coherence; Focusing of laser beams; Threelevel scheme for laser operation; Holography and simple applications.
3. Electricity and Magnetism:
 Electrostatics and Magnetostatics: Laplace and Poisson equations in electrostatics and their applications; Energy of a system of charges, multipole expansion of scalar potential; Method of images and its applications; Potential and field due to a dipole, force and torque on a dipole in an external field; Dielectrics, polarization; Solutions to boundaryvalue problemsconducting and dielectric spheres in a uniform electric field; Magnetic shell, uniformly magnetized sphere; Ferromagnetic materials, hysteresis, energy loss.
 Current Electricity: Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications; BiotSavart law, Ampere’s law, Faraday’s law, Lenz’ law; Selfand mutualinductances; Mean and r m s values in AC circuits; DC and AC circuits with R, L and C components; Series and parallel resonances; Quality factor; Principle of transformer.
 Electromagnetic Waves and Blackbody Radiation: Displacement current and Maxwell’s equations; Wave equations in vacuum, Poynting theorem; Vector and scalar potentials; Electromagnetic field tensor, covariance of Maxwell’s equations; Wave equations in isotropic dielectrics, reflection and refraction at the boundary of two dielectrics; Fresnel’s relations; Total internal reflection; Normal and anomalous dispersion; Rayleigh scattering; Blackbody radiation and Planck’s radiation law, Stefan – Boltzmann law, Wien’s displacement law and RayleighJeans’ law.
4.Thermal and Statistical Physics:
 Thermodynamics: Laws of thermodynamics, reversible and irreversible processes, entropy; Isothermal, adiabatic, isobaric, isochoric processes and entropy changes; Otto and Diesel engines, Gibbs’ phase rule and chemical potential; van der Waals equation of state of a real gas, critical constants; MaxwellBoltzman distribution of molecular velocities, transport phenomena, equipartition and virial theorems; DulongPet i t , Einstein, and Debye’s theories of specific heat of solids; Maxwell relations and applications ; Clausius Clapeyron equation; Adiabatic demagnetisation, JouleKelvin effect and liquefaction of gases.
 Statistical Physics: Macro and micro states, statistical distributions, MaxwellBoltzmann, BoseEinstein and FermiDirac distributions, applications to specific heat of gases and blackbody radiation; Concept of negative temperatures.
PAPER – II
1. Quantum Mechanics:
Waveparticle dualitiy; Schroedinger equation and expectation values; Uncertainty principle; Solutions of the onedimensional Schroedinger equation for a free particle (Gaussian wavepacket), particle in a box, particle in a finite well, linear harmonic oscillator; Reflection and transmission by a step potential and by a rectangular barrier; Particle in a three dimensional box, density of states, free electron theory of metals; Angular momentum; Hydrogen atom; Spin half particles, properties of Pauli spin matrices.
2. Atomic and Molecular Physics:
SternGerlach experiment, electron spin, fine structure of hydrogen atom; LS coupling, JJ coupling; Spectroscopic notation of atomic states; Zeeman effect; FrankCondon principle and applications; Elementary theory of rotational, vibratonal and electronic spectra of diatomic molecules; Raman effect and molecular structure; Laser Raman spectroscopy; Importance of neutral hydrogen atom, molecular hydrogen and molecular hydrogen ion in astronomy; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Elementary theory and applications of NMR and EPR; Elementary ideas about Lamb shift and its significance.
3. Nuclear and Particle Physics:
Basic nuclear propertiessize, binding energy, angular momentum, parity, magnetic moment; Semiempirical mass formula and appl icat ions, mass parabolas; Ground state of deuteron, magnetic moment and noncentral forces; Meson theory of nuclear forces; Salient features of nuclear forces;Shell model of the nucleus – successes and limitations; Violation of parity in beta decay; Gamma decay and internal conversion; Elementary ideas about Mossbauer spectroscopy; Qvalue of nuclear reactions; Nuclear fission and fusion, energy production in stars; Nuclear reactors.
Classification of elementary particles and their interactions ; Conservation laws ; Quark structure of hadrons; Field quanta of electroweak and strong interactions; Elementary ideas about unification of forces; Physics of neutrinos.
4. Solid State Physics, Devices and Electronics:
Crystalline and amorphous structure of matter; Different crystal systems, space groups; Methods of determination of crystal structure; Xray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies; Band theory of solids – conductors, insulators and semiconductors; Thermal properties of solids, specific heat, Debye theory; Magnetism: dia, para and ferromagnetism; Elements of superconductivity, Meissner effect, Josephson junctions and applications; Elementary ideas about high temperature superconductivity.
Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors; pnp and npn transistors; Amplifiers and osci l lators; Opamps; FET, JFET and MOSFET; Digital electronicsBoolean identities, De Morgan’s laws, logic gates and truth tables; Simple logic circuits; Thermistors, solar cells; Fundamentals of microprocessors and digital computers.
Course Structure
Unit  Chapter / Topic  Marks 
I  Electrostatics  15 
Chapter1: Electric Charges and Fields  
Chapter2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance  
II  Current Electricity  
Chapter3: Current Electricity  
III  Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism  16 
Chapter4: Moving Charges and Magnetism  
Chapter5: Magnetism and Matter  
IV  Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current  
Chapter6: Electromagnetic Induction  
Chapter7: Alternating Current  
V  Electromagnetic Waves  17 
Chapter8: Electromagnetic Waves  
VI  Optics  
Chapter9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments  
Chapter10: Wave Optics  
VII  Dual Nature of Matter  10 
Chapter11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter  
VIII  Atoms & Nuclei  
Chapter12: Atoms  
Chapter13: Nuclei  
IX  Electronic Devices  12 
Chapter14: Semiconductor Electronics  
X  Communication Systems  
Chapter15: Communication Systems  
Total  70 
Unit I: Electrostatics
Chapter1: Electric Charges and Fields
Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s lawforce between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric fleld.
Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).
Chapter2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.
Unit II: Current Electricity
Chapter3: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, VI characteristics (linear and nonlinear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell,combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Chapter4: Moving Charges and Magetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.
Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids, Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
Force on a currentcarrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel currentcarrying conductorsdefinition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometerits current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Chapter5: Magnetism and Matter
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
Para, dia and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Chapter6: Electromagnetic Induction
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents.
Self and mutual induction.
Chapter7: Alternating Current
Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattless current.
AC generator and transformer.
Unit V: Electromagnetic waves
Chapter8: Electromagnetic Waves
Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Unit VI: Optics
Chapter9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Ray Optics:: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
Scattering of light – blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Chapter10: Wave Optics
Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen’s principle, relection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.
Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Chapter11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Dual nature of radiation. Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equationparticle nature of light.
Matter waveswave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. DavissonGermer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).
Unit VIII: Atoms & Nuclei
Chapter12: Atoms
Alphaparticle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
Chapter13: Nuclei
Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivityalpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.
Massenergy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.
Unit IX: Electronic Devices
Chapter14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only)
Semiconductor diode – IV characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;
Special purpose pn junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.
Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
Unit X: Communication Systems
Chapter15: Communication Systems
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite communication. Need for modulation, amplitude modulation and frequency modulation, advantages of frequency modulation over amplitude modulation. Basic ideas about internet, mobile telephony and global positioning system (GPS).
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